Kervick and Djenne-amal N. By: James A. Athanasou and James A. By: Melanie Baak. By: Xuan Thuy Nguyen. By: Elsayed Elshabrawy Ahmad Hassanein. By: Jasmine McDonald. An International Reader. Editor s : Andrew Azzopardi. Experiences and Expectations. By: Armineh Soorenian. By: James C. A Framework for Equality and Inclusion. By: Karen Beauchamp-Pryor. Creating Change Through Critical Bureaucracy. By: Anna Carlile.
By: Pavan John Antony. Values, Vision and Voices. Editor s : G. Mac Ruairc , Eli Ottesen and R. Editor s : Duncan P. A Critical Reader. Editor s : Andrew Azzopardi and Shaun Grech. The Iraq Research Fellowship Programme. Issues and Solutions.
By: Alison Kearney. Uncertainty in Research and Practice with Children. Editor s : Daniela Mercieca. Dyspraxia and Drawing. By: Claire Penketh. By: Linda Anne Barkas. By: Simona D'Alessio. However, there is agreement that inclusive education must be based on a principle of education as a human right, since it implies that all individuals should be given the opportunity to achieve to their maximum capacities and educational potential regardless of their abilities, thus ascertaining that good quality education is an inalienable human right.
In fact, for some authors, the ethical foundation of the inclusive model is based in education as a human right and in the need to actualise human rights Parrilla Inclusive education is not only a good in its own right—insofar as it promotes a dynamic and comprehensive view of existing diversities in our complex societies—but also constitutes an essential strategy for defending the inalienable rights of individuals and groups, especially the most disadvantaged, by promoting their empowerment and the recognition of their attributes.nttsystem.xsrv.jp/libraries/11/lucy-whatsapp-mitlesen-iphone.php
Pedagogy for Inclusive Education - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education
The promotion and defence of inclusive education inherently results in the endorsement of social justice. Already, some groups and individuals believe that inclusive societies can only be achieved through fair educational practices. Agreement on this issue among all nations would represent a substantial step towards the implementation of an inclusive model, as it would mean rejecting pedagogical practices which, however well intentioned, involve acts and attitudes that exclude certain groups of students.
It is possible that inclusive education, when defined as a pedagogical strategy, will become dispensable over time. Still, it is an educational model with a moral basis and implications, as it has been created in diverse and inclusive societies, so it requires a higher degree of commitment and consensus among countries. Ultimately, the inclusive approach must be founded on a resolve to build a more democratic and just society. According to the inclusive approach, democratic approaches to management involve sharing responsibility for governing the educational system in such a way that education becomes a collective task.
To date, there seems to be little consensus on the best way to manage schools. Although some experts at the conference seemed to be inclined towards a democratic model of management, it is not clear that this issue is inextricably linked to inclusive education. While it may be argued that democratic models of management can exist without being committed to inclusive education, it is difficult to imagine any genuine form of inclusive education existing without a democratic model of school management.
Great emphasis is placed on the role of teachers in implementing inclusive education approaches, but often insufficient attention is given to the responsibility of the public authorities who promote these policies.
Inclusive education for students with Disabilities
Because the inclusive model of education is complex and requires more time to be implemented effectively, strategies based on political dialogue are indispensable, as is the development of medium- and long-term policies based on a broad consensus and agreements. On one point there is consensus: in the field of education, the state is seen as responsible for guaranteeing the right to education, providing fair and equitable access to the economic resources devoted to education, and exhibiting a willingness to adapt to the needs of particular groups in the educational system, all of which are important components of inclusive education.
Beyond this point, political practices differ among countries and ideologies.
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The first issue is whether the state should merely regulate a network of educational establishments including public and private, inclusive and exclusive schools , or whether it should play a more active role in promoting a specific education model. There also exists a fundamental divergence of opinions as to whether education is a public good that benefits society as a whole—which implies that all citizens should be equally responsible for it—or whether it is a consumption good that generates only individual benefits.
How and to what extent should the state intervene in the sphere of private education? This issue is still unresolved at the international level. This principle is at the core of inclusive teaching and learning practices and seems to be broadly accepted, especially in light of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which stresses the need to make children the focal point of educational policies. It is also generally agreed that whereas assimilation requires that the child be the one to adapt to the school, inclusive education calls upon the school to adapt to the needs of the child, based on the assumption that diversity enriches the teaching and learning processes.
Nevertheless, differences emerge when policies are put into practice.
For example, should teaching be personalized to each child in the classroom, or should students be grouped together according to levels of learning achievement? Educational research has identified many drawbacks associated with separating students by levels and thus tends to favour leaving students together while giving them a personalized approach. Furthermore, because of the complexity involved in working with a diverse group of students, inclusive education requires teachers who are well trained pedagogically and willing to take a stand in support of a model that integrates all students into the school.
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This type of training should propel teachers to adopt a more holistic approach to their work, hand in hand with other professional educators such as teachers, educational and cognitive psychologists, counsellors, school doctors, and social workers. It should also involve special education training, so that teachers not specialized in this field are capable, with the help of specialists, of dealing with students who require special needs education.
Of course, training alone is not enough. Attitudes add a complex dimension to inclusive education policies that go beyond amending the system. This issue reflects two very different approaches to inclusive education and to education in general. Both views are an inherent part of discussions that take place on the international stage regarding teaching practices and educational policies. As a general rule, the higher the expectations, the more confidence students gain in their own potential and the greater their achievements.
Inclusive education is unlikely to be implemented simply because a government decrees it; that much is agreed upon. While legislation can either foster or hamper the establishment of rules on the basis of a particular educational model, the strength of the approach—precisely because of its underlying ideological character—resides in the capacity for consensus that it can generate among broad sectors of the population, including teachers, public authorities, families, private entities involved in the education sector, and relevant social and economic players such as employers and trade unions.
Inclusion implies encouraging schools to promote community dialogue and to establish networks of mutual support among families, schools, and other members of the community. The school and social players should share inclusive values in a supportive and stimulating community setting. In the inclusive system, families must collaborate and share responsibility with teachers by supporting education-related initiatives.
The open-minded outlook that we wish to propagate among teachers is equally important in the case of families, who transmit a wide range of attitudes within the walls of their home and in their daily interactions with other citizens and institutions in their communities. Education presupposes a social and civic commitment; therefore the model of education that a society chooses must be in harmony with its desired standards.
An inclusive school only makes sense in the context of a society that also aims to be inclusive. While a commitment to inclusion can affect all aspects of the education system—and implies a change in school structures, cultures and practices—school-related issues cannot be separated from political strategies based on a broader model of social equity. Thus, inclusive education will only be implemented successfully if the concept is agreed upon and accepted by public authorities, social actors and civil society.
Coordination among these groups is critical, as is the implementation of inter-sectoral policies in conjunction with more specialized initiatives. This is especially important in the context of local policies, where measures taken on behalf of the most disadvantaged individuals and groups will have the most visible effect.
It is within educational systems and schools themselves that inequalities must be set right, and this can be achieved by giving more support to those with the greatest needs. Some views support differentiated educational strategies that separate children by gender, social class, ethnic origin, performance, etc. Education and pedagogical literature is in virtually unanimous agreement that this practice both worsens academic results and tends to marginalize groups and individuals.
These are then classified as advantages or disadvantages. We know that for a system to be considered inclusive, it must view education differently, and work with students in accordance with their capacities, embracing their diversity, and seeking to overcome obstacles to learning and participation Ainscow , beginning with a desire for excellence and keeping in mind a broad concept of social equity. Although comprehensive education is one step towards an inclusive approach, it is not enough. International research has shown that in segregated education systems, a significant proportion of students fail to reach their potential, whereas more inclusive systems tend to offer a better learning experience for all students over time.
From the point of view of inclusiveness, it seems evident that the religious education of children and adolescents should be addressed on the basis of diversity, plurality and a mutual understanding of the various beliefs that exist both outside and within each community. Some experts, however, believe that religious education should not be part of school curricula, while others maintain that certain subjects like religion should be addressed through a network of schools, each containing a marked, differentiated, and pluralistic religious character.
Teaching practices and educational policies on this subject tend to differ substantially among countries. Even so, there seems to be a consensus on the fact that an inclusive educational approach should acknowledge different religions and be prepared to accept diversity. Much attention has recently been given to the education of migrant children by countries hosting immigrant families.
There was surprisingly little discussion on this topic at the conference, especially considering that it is very closely tied to the handling of diversity in schools, and that it affects many countries, both developing and developed ones. Inclusion implies not only recognizing and taking into account the many skills of individuals and groups, but also facilitating the empowerment of minorities and accepting the existence of processes dedicated to creating and preserving multiple, diverse and complex identities. Inclusive education cannot be an excuse to develop policies of cultural assimilation, as it requires going beyond mere integration and involves establishing a positive connotation of diversity.
The EFA report indicates that international economic aid for basic education has levelled off or is declining slightly. This form of aid needs to be tripled if the desired objectives are to be attained.
Related Understanding the Development of Inclusive Schools (Studies in Inclusive Education Series)
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