Yes, the Nuremberg trials of convicted — in the spotlight of the international media — 22 main Nazi officials, military officers and business leaders. And, yes, there were a number of trials to follow in the s. But it took until the s and the Auschwitz trials for the larger public to be shaken out of its comforting illusion that an economic recovery could continue without addressing the traumatic experience of Nazi crimes and the involvement and passive support of significant segments of the population. Student protests in West Germany were kickstarted by the decision of the center left Social Democratic Party to exclude its student union from party membership in The students saw themselves as legitimate political players.
Adorno and Herbert Marcuse , leading figures of the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory who had been in exile during the war. The political activist Beate Klarsfeld , for example, received major public attention when she slapped Kurt Georg Kiesinger, German chancellor from It was unacceptable to students that a staunch opponent of free speech could be the highest dignitary of West Germany. Kiesinger, however, struck back. The law was implemented in May and authorized the government to make wide-ranging decisions without confirmation or consent by the German Parliament.
It gave the government power to strip citizens of constitutional rights such as the right of free speech in case of an armed conflict or a natural disaster.
Movements on the Left and Right Since the 1960s
Students attacked the law as undemocratic and took to the streets. Demonstrations became violent. The deadly shooting of Benno Ohnesorg in whose attacker was revealed in as an undercover agent for the East German Stasi secret police and of charismatic student leader Rudi Dutschke a year later, brought matters to a boiling point. In the wake of this violence the student movement split. Most continued peaceful protests. It was their kidnapping and murder of Hanns-Martin Schleyer, the president of the Confederation of German Employers Association, that pushed the government into a state of emergency.
The RAF was undoubtedly a criminal organization without lasting impact on society as a whole. But the student protests changed the German mindset forever.
The people are revolting!
More female high school graduates entered higher education. New nondiscrimination laws made it easier for women to pursue careers in higher education.
In addition, universities lowered access barriers for students from low income families. The statement comments on recent initiatives to unify the left, which the IMG argues is due to "an increasing frustration because of the impotence and paralysis of the traditional left in face of the continued evolution to the right by the Labour Government". Cover of a special issue of 'Anarchy'. The anarchist journal contains 'a survey of the student revolt', described as "a microcosm of anarchism in action".
Protest Politics in Germany: Movements on the Left and Right Since the 1960s
It focuses particularly on the events in Britain, but includes additional comment on the situation in the USA, France and West Germany. News sheet from a collection of ephemera relating to the student rent strike and occupation of Senate House and the telephone exchange by members of the Students' Union. The main topic of the leaflet is the need to fight resurgent fascism and to oppose politicians' immigration policies which help "to make the Nazis' ideas respectable". Leaflet promoting class war - "A huge explosion of class hatred and anger is building up and when it errupts it will make the '81 riots look like a tea party" - "We have no demands to make of you, there's no reforms you can make to get rid of us, our banners read only "Behold your future executioners"".
Section on Collective Behavior and Social Movements past awards recipients
Summary of a statement by the International Marxist Group, denying responsibility for the bombings but supporting "the right of the Irish Republican movement to carry out armed actions against British imperialism". Included in an edition of 'Irish Trotskyist'. Members of Black September opened fire in a passenger lounge in Athens airport, killing 3 and wounding more than The attackers were captured by the Greek authorities. In December , 30 people were killed and an aircraft was hijacked at Rome airport by terrorists demanding the release of the gunmen from Greek custody.
The article supports the RAF and criticises what it claims to be the state sponsored murders of its members. Leaflet issued by "Friends of Astrid Proll", London.see
Leaflet for a rally in Coventry opposing the Prevention of Terrorism Act. The campaign appears to be linked to Provisional Sinn Fein. The charter, printed on the back cover, contains demands relating to legal, educational and financial equality, together with the need for free legal contraception and the recognition of motherhood and parenthood as a social function.
It states that "as women, we demand the right to be able to walk along at night, unhassled, unmolested and free from the threat of rape". Leaflet from the 'Why Be A Wife Campaign' - "take away the orange blossom and confetti and the marriage vows are not so different from a job contract.
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The woman takes on the job of unpaid servant, and in exchange the man agrees to 'support' her and any children". The Ecology Party was founded in Coventry in as 'People', to act as an alternative political party concerned with environmental issues as opposed to economic growth. It was renamed the Green Party in The leaflet outlines plans for the occupation of the site of a proposed nuclear reactor at Torness, South East Scotland, over the May bank holiday weekend. In this book Roger Karapin carefully examines protest movements on both the left and the right in order to understand how they became large and influential and why protesters in different conflicts used quite different methods ranging from conventional participation to nonviolent disruption to violent militancy.
His study of nine cases of protest includes leftist opposition to urban-renewal and nuclear-energy policies in the s and s and rightist opposition to immigration policy in the s. Comparisons of contrasting cases reveal the crucial role played by strategic interaction among protesters, party politicians, and government officials—rather than socioeconomic factors or political institutions—in determining the paths that the movements took.
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