In the successive study sites, the height of the standing vegetation and soil moisture gradually increased, whilst the light availability decreased. Stable in consecutive seasons, the total number of ramets per generative ramet cluster achieved the lowest values in willow thickets due to mechanical suppression of vegetative growth by the robust underground organs of neighbouring plants.
Constant during the study period, the share of generative stems decreased in successive study sites, while the percentage of leaf rosettes showed an inverted tendency. The increase of height of generative stems and number of flowers per inflorescence in consecutive Patches, as well as the augmentation of length of flowers in time and space, might trigger an improvement of generative reproduction in a crowded environment.
The increase of the number of nodes and dimensions of cauline leaf blades in successive Patches and the augmentation of the number and dimensions of rosette leaves in the time and space might contribute to greater efficacy of light capture in growing shading.
Summarizing the plasticity of traits might assure the spread of generative ramet clusters in open habitats, as well as their persistence in crowded sites.
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The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between the maternal lineages of a Thai wild water buffalo in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary and other domesticated water buffaloes. Mitochondrial control region sequence were analysed in comparison with published sequences of domestic water buffaloes. The DNA fragment size of bp indicated 55 polymorphic nucleotide sites with 50 transitions and 5 transversions. The maximum likelihood tree revealed that the Thai wild water buffalo located in lineage A of one major swamp water buffalo clade.
The Thai wild water buffalo genetic material has more similarities with that of the swamp water buffalo from lineage A, than that from lineage B. Median-joining phylogenetic network and mutation position showed that the evolution of the Thai wild water buffalo happened prior to domesticate swamp water buffaloes. Analysis of mitochondrial control region sequence of the wild water buffalo showed independent maternal origin, separating from other domesticated swamp water buffaloes.
Keywords: Thai wild water buffalo; control region; mitochondrial DNA. Garden biodiversity is an integral part of the urban ecosystem and play an important role in improving green infrastructure and aid in climate change adaptations.
Little research is available on the floral diversity of the parks and gardens. The present study is an attempt to document the floral diversity of 77 gardens in Vadodara city and elucidate trends based on the size of the gardens. Study indicated presence of species belonging to 72 families from the gardens of Vadodara city. Paper concluded that diversity is more in the small gardens as compared to large sized garden, where plantation of few species in undertaken. Species suitable to the semi-arid climate with low water requirement dominated the gardens indicative of better management practices and adapt to climate change.
River rehabilitation efforts in the world are increasing to conserve the ecosystem. These efforts, generally, face challenges from various sources. Major constraints which can turn such a program into a failed project have been discussed explicitly in the first portion of this paper. In the latter portion of the paper, focus has been given on the problems of rehabilitation of the Pusu Rive at Gombak District in Malaysia.
Water sampling from the river and its catchment has been done in different periods and events. Pollution loadings into the river have been calculated for different parameters. Based on analysis, sand mining activities, point source pollution and catchment landuse have been identified as the major impediments of Pusu River rehabilitation.
Bkra shis bzang po
These problems must be addressed before the rehabilitation of the river to ensure the rehabilitation of the river is successful. The raising of the sea causes salinity intrusion into fresh water zones such as river, lake, floodplain and other lowlands. Salinity intrusion in the Mangrove forest is a continuous process. However, due to the increasing salinity ecological integrity of the Sundarbans have been largely affected. The compositional and functional aspects of flora and fauna have been changing at a great deal. The objective of this study is to delineate the changes of the structure and composition of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest due to excess salinity intrusion and how salinity affect its biodiversity, wildlife habitat and other ecosystem components.
This study reviewed related literature gathered through an extensive survey of various websites and the secondary data obtained from various departments with necessary modifications.
- The Politics of Inequity in Developing Countries (International Political Economy).
- The Reason we exist - Cordyceps;
- Chemical Engineering Dynamics: An Introduction to Modelling and Computer Simulation.
- Atlas of Psoriasis (Encyclopedia of Visual Medicine Series).
- Professional English in Use Engineering with Answers: Technical English for Professionals!
- Pertamina Buka Peluang Olah Minyak di India!
- AIDS and the Sexuality of Law: Ironic Jurisprudence;
The land use maps collected from the Bangladesh Forest Department were interpreted to achieve an elaborate classification of forest type and its gradual change with increasing salinity. Observations at the periphery of Sundarbans explore the effect of salinity on the population, livestock, aquatic species and the paddy fields.
We used ArcGIS 9. The study states that the salinity intrusion causes the reduction of fresh water availability in Sundarbans. As a result, fresh water loving species are replaced by the species of the saline zone. Most of the areas are found with the small and bushy typed species that reduce biomass in comparison with their standard volume. The study reveals the effects of salinity intrusion in the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest which may affect its compositional, structural and functional integrity.
Long-term and short-term policies are recommended to resolve the issues. Keywords: Salinity intrusion; Ecological integrity; Mangrove ecosystem; Biodiversity; Wildlife habitat; Structure and composition of mangrove species. Digapahandi block of Ganjam district is a chronically drought prone and economically backward area of Odisha. The agricultural lands which are mostly rain fed bear the adverse effects of drought resulting in loss of crops. Surface water irrigation is very limited and not dependable due to vagaries of monsoon rainfall.
Drinking water problem is very acute during summer as most of the wells go dry.
- Obstetric Evidence-Based Guidelines (Series in Maternal-Fetal Medicine).
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- The Security Development Lifecycle: SDL: A Process for Developing Demonstrably More Secure Software (Developer Best Practices).
Keeping this fact in view the research was aimed at locating site specific artificial recharge structures for groundwater resource conservation and augmentation in hard rock terrain. The study reveals that the major litho units are granitic gneisses, khondalite and charnockite suite of rocks.
Location of sights in Bukit Minyak on the map
The geomorphic units are pediplain, flood plain, denudational and structural hills. Four sets of lineaments have been identified. The interpreted data is cross-checked and confirmed during field visits. Based on the hydro-geological set-up, suitable site- specific artificial recharge structures such as percolation tank, check dam, contour bund, gully plug and vegetative measures have been suggested to maintain the balance between the recharge and draft.
Indonesia is an archipelago that has the largest mangrove forest in the world.
Strategic role of forest resources encourages the need for sustainable management of mangrove forests. This study aims to formulate strategies for management of mangrove forests related with degradation of land use in Teluk Kelumpang Natural Reserve area at Kotabaru Regency, using Analysis Hierarchy Process AHP approachment. The results of study explained that the hierarchical structure I which consists of the supporting factors for socio-ecological, sosio-cultural and sosio-economic aspects got score 1,; 1, and 0, respectively.
It shows that the supporting factor which based on socio-ecological aspects, believe to be the most dominant factor for sustainable and sustainability Teluk Kelumpang Natural Reserve mangrove forest management policy formulation. Based on the hierarchical structure II, conclude that the socio-economic indicators, ie: utilization based to the absence of access to land ownership, capitalization of the business and source of livelihood got score 1,; 0, and 0, respectively.
On the socio-ecological indicators can be concluded that the understanding of mangrove forest conservation got score 1,, environmental services is 0, and the ecological functions of mangrove forest is 0, The environmental variations during concerts were analysed showing how the internal relative humidity tends to an average value between the conservation conditions and the external conditions. The violin internal relative humidity presents a typical drop when the player stops playing.
The mass variations consequent to the concerts were also recorded and analysed. This analysis has shown how the difference between the conservation average relative humidity and the violin external average relative humidity during a concert are good predictors of the mass variation. Relative humidity and Equilibrium Moisture Content have shown the same ability to predict the mass loss showing how the temperature for the variation measured in this research is not an important factor.
The analysis suggests that the presence of the violinist does not play a relevant role on the violin mass transfer during a concert. In this study, a new protocol of consolidation for basaltic stone artifacts was investigated. A considerable series of samples of deteriorated basaltic artifacts were collected from the Rujm el-kursi archaeological site in Jordan. Colloidal dispersion was prepared to act as a consolidant solution for the selected basalt artifacts.
The resulting ternary phase diagram was used to prepare the optimum formulation for consolidant dispersion. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the prepared dispersion. Experiments included capillarity water absorption, penetration of water, water drop absorption, salts movement and accelerated artificial aging test. The results of laboratory experiments showed that the prepared colloidal dispersion expressed acceptable efficient in strengthening the internal structure of stone.
Obvious changes in the mineralogical composition of treated samples were not recorded. The treated basalt stone appeared to be water repellent; can decrease the penetration of water, which in turn led to the decrease of salts crystallization process inside basalt stone pores. The prepared dispersion appeared to be stable against accelerated aging factors and effective in decreasing the basalt stone decaying process.
Metallic objects undergo physical-chemical transformations involving complex mechanisms, which change both their surface and their metallic core. The results revealed the excess of the chloride ion in corrosion products, transforming the bulk in stratified sponge structure.
Compounds of primary and secondary patina were found as color stains on the surface. The alloy components Cu, Sn, Zn and contamination components, allowed us to prove the influence of environmental factors in the alteration processes of Brass alloy artifacts causing brittleness in the mineralogical composition.
Finally, the results obtained helps in choosing the best methods of treatment and conservation. Consolidation of degraded wooden artifacts by natural and synthetic polymers in a solution is an important step in the treatment process of wooden heritage. This treatment is basically depended on the penetration, distribution and retention of the consolidate in the wood structure. One of the most frequently used consolidate for wooden material is polyvinyl butyral PVB.
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Samples used for this research all belong to Qajar period. They were obtained from the same artifact and had the same, relatively sound condition. Cross sections were cut and obtained in a chamber with controlled temperature and relative humidity and weighted afterwards. Zinc oxide was used in 0. Concentrations 0. Penetration of Nano- zinc oxide in the lumen as well as uniform distribution of it in the wood structure was also observed by microscopic observation.
This research aims to identify the stitching techniques, texture, pigments and deterioration factors, and to examine the different causes of damages through historical and artistic review. Data and information is collected through library and field studies, laboratory tests, instrument approaches, analysis, survey and direct observation of the object. Fibers and pigments were detected using polarizing light microscopy, chemical tests and affordable analysis devices. Results showed the fibers as silk, and Indigo and Madder were identified as main colorants used in dying the fibers.
Also according to the SEM results, metal thread was identified as pure silver, which is covered with a layer of black sulfur.
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