Landscape with Fragmented Figures: A Novel (Working Lives Series)

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Marijuana and LSD. Writing in a spare, poetic style that fairly crackles with energy, Charles Dodd White makes his mark as a major new talent as he masterfully explores the raw beauty and pathos of life among tough people caught in bad situations.

Review: Landscape with Fragmented Figures by Jeff Vande Zande

With this book, he has nailed the coonskin to the wall. Jeanne Bryner moves beyond K-Mart class stereotypes into deeper spaces, uncovering a complexity and variety of working-class lives few acknowledge. Not a word rings false in this unsparingly honest collection. These stories bring to mind those wonderful, spare Springsteen songs about characters who make the wrong decisions and pay the price. Fried, author of Corner Men pgs.

Energetic and clear-sighted, these poems are never afraid of their difficult subjects Jeanne Bryner is the real thing. There is a lot of pretend poetry, but nothing really this fine. With this book it makes it very easy for me to say: Laura Bentley, I dub thee poet supreme. The branch lengths in Fig. Analysis of the spatial genetic structure of the four populations with BAPS v5. The greater genetic diversity of UP may be due to its mainland location and previously though not currently more extensive distribution and possibly greater abundance of the butterfly Fig.

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We compared allele frequencies among the populations for each SNP, contrasting all pairs of populations with each other, one contrast corresponding to fragmented versus continuous landscapes. The numbers of SNPs with statistically significant differences between population pairs are shown in Fig. The pairing corresponding to fragmented versus continuous landscapes shows many more SNPs 5, with a significant difference than the other pairings and 1, Distance was defined as one minus correlation.

The pairs of populations representing the contrast between fragmented versus continuous landscapes are shown by gray shading. Gene expression differences among the four populations were analysed using a balanced data set with 15 individuals from each population Materials and Methods; Table S2.

The relationships between the four populations based on gene expression are different from those based on allelic variation. This result was supported by Bayesian clustering of populations Fig.

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We used an enrichment analysis based on the GO and KEGG gene classes to investigate differences in expression level between the landscape types Table S3. Based on a permutation test and a likelihood ratio test, we identified a set of 1, genes with differential expression between the landscape types Table S4. Altogether GO categories were significantly enriched categories for biological process, 31 for cellular component, 40 for molecular function , including multiple categories involved in glucose import, growth and differentiation, hormonal signalling, immune response, transcription, RNA processing and translation.

Processes that potentially reflect adaptation to different landscape types include many stimulus response GO groups chemicals, hormones and temperature , cellular response to misfolded and unfolded protein, RNA splicing and growth. Many categories related to growth and differentiation contain genes involved in Wnt, Notch and hedgehog signalling pathways, which is also indicated by publication enrichment against Drosophila [41] , [42]. Overall, extracellular signalling was up-regulated in samples from fragmented landscapes, including the main signalling molecules Wnt and hedgehog , whereas intracellular signalling in the hedgehog pathway was consistently down-regulated, starting from hedgehog receptor patched.

The KEGG enrichment found only four significantly enriched categories: riboflavin metabolism, lysine degradation, primary bile acid biosynthesis and other types of O-glycan biosynthesis. Previous studies of the Glanville fritillary have linked faster larval post-diapause development [43] and increased female reproductive capacity [44] to elevated expression of hexamerin larval serum protein genes.

Since the rate of larval post-diapause development is faster in fragmented than continuous landscapes Fig. The probability of having 4 or more significant hexamerin genes among the 7 genes is 0. Additionally, multiple hexamerin modifying genes in the ecdysteroid signaling pathway were differentially expressed between the landscape types. Fragmented landscapes harbor metapopulations that consist of small local populations connected by dispersal [6] , [12].

As local extinctions and re-colonizations are predicted [10] and observed [13] to select for more dispersive females, we hypothesize that expression differences between butterflies from new versus old local populations within a single fragmented landscape are correlated with expression differences between fragmented versus continuous landscapes.

For this comparison, we selected the 1, genes with a significant expression difference between the landscape types. The result remained qualitatively the same Fig. To search for genomic regions which are likely to harbor intragenic or proximate allelic variants affecting transcript levels, we investigated associations between SNPs and gene expression cis -eQTL with regression models assuming additive, dominance and recessive effects. Each SNP was tested to explain expression of its closest gene. To reduce spurious associations, we required that all three genotypes the two homozygotes and the heterozygote were represented in the data and that the analyses could be done separately for each population.

Only those SNPs that had the same sign of the association in all four populations were included. We focused on SNPs that are potentially biologically significant for landscape adaptation, and we hence required that there was a significant allele frequency difference between the fragmented and continuous landscapes. SNPs in these genes are promising candidates for large-scale genotyping to study interactions between genotype, gene expression, life history traits and their interactions with environmental variables.

As an example, we highlight in Fig. These results reflect possible landscape-level selection for increased hypoxia tolerance in the more mobile butterflies in fragmented landscapes.

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Finally, there is a significant sex-genotype interaction, males showing higher expression for the high-expression genotype Fig. The figure gives the means and standard deviations for normalized read counts. Here, we used the results of an experiment on gene expression changes following active flight to test whether the flight-induced expression changes are correlated with the base-line expression difference no flight treatment between the landscape types Materials and Methods. We focus on the 39 genes that were significantly up-regulated 34 genes or down-regulated 5 genes in both males and females at 20 hrs following the flight treatment Materials and Methods, Table S8.

Figure 6 shows that the genes that are more highly expressed in fragmented than continuous landscapes are significantly up-regulated following the flight treatment.

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The correlation is highly significant, but we refrain from presenting a P -value, because the degrees of freedom are inflated to an unknown extent by the fact that the expression of many genes is regulated by the same factors. The most noteworthy result is the abundance of immune response genes among the 39 genes, specifically antimicrobial peptide AMP genes such as gloverin , moricin , defensin , lebocin and cecropin genes Table S8.

The horizontal axis gives the change in expression following experimental flight treatment, while the vertical axis shows the expression difference between the fragmented versus continuous landscapes without the flight treatment in females a and males b. The data set includes the 39 genes Table S8 in which expression at 20 hours after the flight treatment was significantly and similarly different from the control individuals in both females and males.

The large symbols indicate 12 genes with immune response functions, of which 8 genes are AMPs in red Table S8. We suggest that these differences reflect dissimilar selection in dissimilar environments and are causally related to the known life history differences between the two landscape types.

Admittedly, we cannot conclusively reject alternative explanations because of several confounding factors, which is an inevitable challenge in observational studies conducted at large spatial scales. First, the two fragmented landscapes are located at a slightly higher latitude than the two continuous landscapes Fig.

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Second, the two fragmented populations share the most recent common ancestor, as evidenced by genome-wide allele frequencies Fig. On the other hand, several features in our results support the hypothesis that landscape fragmentation is one cause of gene expression differences.

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First, there were significant expression differences between the landscape types in several categories of genes that are likely to be related to the known life history differences between the landscape types, for instance the hexamerin genes and other categories related to growth and regeneration discussed below. This correlation suggests that recurrent establishment of new populations by dispersing females in fragmented landscapes [12] selects for a specific gene expression profile. And third, genes that were systematically up-regulated following an experimental flight treatment tended to have higher base-line expression in fragmented than continuous landscapes Fig.

Note that the latter two results, which are further discussed below, involve relationships between independent data sets. Genes involved in growth and regeneration and which have significant expression differences between the populations in the present study include many members of the pleiotropic Wnt , Notch and hedgehog signalling pathways.

Two genes Nicastrin and Patched-related in these pathways showed significant associations between allelic variation and gene expression, suggesting possible selection. These pathways have been shown to be activated during regeneration of induced wing disk tissue in Drosophila [41] , [46] , which could be related to the ability to recover from flight-induced oxidative damage to flight muscle tissue [47] — [51].

A notable life history difference between the fragmented and continuous landscapes is faster larval development in the former [19] , related to greater post-diapause body size Fig. This could be caused by differences in energy reserves received by the offspring from their mothers, but equally there may be genetic or epigenetic differences in hormonal regulation, influencing the development time. In particular, we found systematic differences in the expression of hexamerin genes between the landscape types, which have previously been shown to have high heritability and which correlate strongly with larval development time in the Glanville fritillary [43].

The co-expression of hexamerin genes and the hexamerin modifying genes in the ecdysteroid signaling pathway suggests that the expression of these genes is driven by differences in hormonal regulation. Our samples represent adults rather than larvae, but differences in the regulators of hexamerin expression promoter regions, enhancer elements and transcription factors are likely to affect expression levels in all life history stages. The resources thereby released are converted from fat body and muscle tissue to a soluble form of larval serum proteins that is, hexamerins [53] , [54] , which are carried through the hemolymph to the abdomen and used for reproductive organs [55] , [56].

Landscape with Fragmented Figures: A Novel (Working Lives Series) Landscape with Fragmented Figures: A Novel (Working Lives Series)
Landscape with Fragmented Figures: A Novel (Working Lives Series) Landscape with Fragmented Figures: A Novel (Working Lives Series)
Landscape with Fragmented Figures: A Novel (Working Lives Series) Landscape with Fragmented Figures: A Novel (Working Lives Series)
Landscape with Fragmented Figures: A Novel (Working Lives Series) Landscape with Fragmented Figures: A Novel (Working Lives Series)
Landscape with Fragmented Figures: A Novel (Working Lives Series) Landscape with Fragmented Figures: A Novel (Working Lives Series)
Landscape with Fragmented Figures: A Novel (Working Lives Series) Landscape with Fragmented Figures: A Novel (Working Lives Series)
Landscape with Fragmented Figures: A Novel (Working Lives Series) Landscape with Fragmented Figures: A Novel (Working Lives Series)

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