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List of Contributors. Afifi University of Iowa Robert R. Agne Auburn University Collins O. Alcaraz Washington University in St. Bevan Chapman University Joseph A. Brown Cerritos College Monica M. Buller Klein Buendel, Inc. Clayton University of Utah Rebecca J. Condit University of Georgia Charles R. Cooke-Jackson Emerson College W. Dillon University of Memphis M. Dunning Kimberly K. Ersig University of Iowa W. Greenwood Vassar College James E.
Hart University of Louisville Lynn M. Harter Ohio University Matthias R. Hedlund Northwestern University Donald W. Hilyard University of Georgia Evelyn Y. John University of Utah Elizabeth B. Matthias Richard L. Monahan University of Georgia Jennifer J. Olufowote University of Oklahoma Leah M.
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Passalacqua Rollins College Julia M. Reid University of Georgia Ronald E. Sellnow University of Kentucky Deanna D. Spence University of Kentucky Christine M. Louis Katherine A.
Warren Rutgers University Melinda R. Weathers Clemson University Lynne M. Wolf Northwestern University Norman C. Wong University of Oklahoma Kelly S. Louis Stephen M. Zoller University of Cincinnati [Page xxxiv]. Works in Health Communication. Thompson , University of Dayton. Kreps , Gary L. Health Communication: Theory and Practice.
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New York : Longman , Northouse , Peter G. Health Communication: Strategies for Health Professionals. Thompson , Teresa L. Sarah Boslaugh , Kennesaw State University. Originally conceptualized as a movement away from the culture of origin and toward the new culture, acculturation is now conceptualized as a process in which values from the old culture are retained while aspects of the new are assimilated. Accumulation of risk model: A life course model that posits that risk accumulates over the course of a lifetime, although there also may be critical periods during which an exposure or other risk may have greater effect.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and state departments of health, to collect information about health behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge. CDC: The U. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a federal agency within the U. Department of Health and Human Services focused on public health and safety. Change theory: A theory, such as the diffusion of information theory, that can be used to guide the development of health interventions.
Communal function of health communication : Using health communication techniques to build social support for a position, such as the unacceptability of domestic violence. Department of Health and Human Services proposing an expanded definition of health literacy encompassing the complexities of the health system an individual has to navigate as well as the capabilities of the individual.
Community capacity: Characteristics of a community that influence its ability to identify and address problems. Community-based participatory research : Research conducted in a collaborative fashion among partners including community members, academic researchers, and organizational representatives, with the goal of allowing all [Page ] participants to share knowledge and expertise and to take responsibility for the research. Cultural sensitivity: An approach to communication that is responsive to the specific belief systems, experiences, and social context of individuals, communities, or populations, and acknowledges that words and constructs may have different meanings to different people.
Determinants of health model: An approach to population health that conceptualizes the health of individuals as being affected by multiple levels of factors, including general socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental conditions, social and community networks, individual lifestyle factors, and age, sex, and constitutional characteristics. Developmental origins of health and disease model: A life course approach model developed by D. Barker and colleagues, which looks for the roots of adult diseases such as diabetes and the metabolic syndrome in characteristics such as low birth weight or higher body mass index in childhood.
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Diffusion of innovations model: A model describing how an innovation spreads throughout a social system. Key constructs in the model include characteristics of the innovation itself, agents of change, potential adopters, communication processes and channels, and the social system. Ears of the hippopotamus: A graphic used to explain that the prevalence of malaria in some countries may be much higher than is evident from individuals seeking formal medical treatment. The graphic shows a hippopotamus almost completed submerged in water, with its ears poking above the surface: the visible ears represent the small proportion less than 5 percent of malaria cases treated in the hospital, while the bulk of the hippopotamus, representing cases treated in dispensaries or not at all, represents the remaining plus percent.
Ecological perspective: A perspective on health promotion that includes multiple levels of independent factors, including the community, interpersonal, and intrapersonal levels. Evidence-based medicine: An approach to medical care that incorporates the tools of epidemiology and biostatistics to allow the individual care provider to critically evaluate information from the medical research literature and apply it to the care of individual patients.
Explanatory theory: A theory, such as the Health Belief Model or the Theory of Planned Behavior, that seeks to describe the factors that motivate behavior or that contribute to a problem. Formative evaluation: A type of evaluation that usually occurs while a program is being implemented and focuses on getting information to help improve the program. Functional status: A method of describing an individual's health, including evaluations of the physical, mental, and social spheres; functional status originally was used to evaluate disability but now is used more broadly in health research.
Group health communication: Methods of the communication of health information within a group, for instance among members of a team providing health care, among family members, or among members of a support group. Hawthorne effect: A term describing the fact that realizing one is being observed, or is taking part in research, may change a person's behavior. The term originates from a series of studies carried out in the s at the Hawthorne Works, a Western Electric plant in Cicero, Illinois. Health behavior: Observable behaviors that influence health, such as dietary choices, smoking, hand washing, and exercise.
Health belief model: A model developed in the s by psychologists working for the U.
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Public Health Service, including Godfrey Hochbaum and Irwin Rosenstock, to help understand why some people took advantage of public health programs [Page ] e. Key components of the HBM include perceived threat, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, modifying variables, and self-efficacy. Health communication: The use of strategies to communicate information about health and to influence individuals and communities in health decision making.
Health literacy: The ability to locate, comprehend, and evaluate health information, including weighing the merits of different courses of action and following instructions about how to take medications. The concept goes beyond simply being able to read and includes interpreting oral and visual information as well as reasoning with that information.
National Academy of Sciences, recommending an expanded definition of health literacy to include the skills of health care providers as well those of the individuals seeking information. Healthy immigrant effect: A finding in many health studies that, despite higher levels of poverty, first-generation immigrants have lower mortality and better health than persons born in the United States.
These effects often are attributed to health behaviors e. Holistic model of health: A broad definition of health, such as that stated in the preamble to the World Health Organization's Constitution, which defines health as going beyond the absence of disease or infirmity and including the highest attainable state of well-being in the social, physical, and mental spheres.
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ICTs: Information and communication technologies, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, and the Internet. Informational function of health communication : Using communication techniques to convey information to be learned by the recipient, such as how to determine if a water source is safe for drinking. International Communication Association: An academic and professional organization founded in as the National Society for the Study of Communication and devoted to the study of human and mediated communication.
The Health Communication section of the association is devoted to the study of communication in health promotion and health care. International Classification of Diseases ICD : The 10th edition of the standard diagnostic tool used in medicine and epidemiology to classify health problems and diseases. A revision, ICD, is expected in International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: A classification of disability and human functioning endorsed in by the World Health Organization.
The conceptual model underlying this classification is that health includes multiple levels of functioning, and that disability is a production of the interaction between an individual and his or her environment.
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