The privilege of social class whose members possess disproportionately large percentage of society's wealth, prestige and political influence. Supreme political power is in the hands of one person whose decision are unregulated.. Right-wing political system where the principle means of production and distribution are in private hands.
Extreme left-wing ideology based on the revolutionary socialist teachings of Marx. Collective ownership and a planned economy.
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Each should work to their capability and receive according to their needs. Governmental system where the existing institution are maintained, emphasizing free-enterprise and minimal governmental intervention. Government by the people usually through elected representatives. Government by a single person with absolute control over the resources of the state.
Belief where all citizens have equal rights and privileges. Extreme right-wing ideology where the existing social order is protected by the forcible suppression of the working class. The extension of power and rule beyond established geographical boundaries. Representative government, free-speech, abolition of class privilege and state protection of the individual. Developed by Marx and Engles, it proposes that all is subject to change and resistance to change necessitates the overthrow of the system through class struggle. Interpretation of Marxist communism emphasizing the development of agriculture.
A form of rule in which the head of state is a King or Queen. The unification of the state and release from foreign rule. A system of government in which virtually all power is held a small number of wealthy people who shape policy to benefit themselves. Though Peel's supporters subsequently split from their colleagues over the issue of free trade in , ultimately joining the Whigs and the Radicals to form what would become the Liberal Party , Peel's version of the party's underlying outlook was retained by the remaining Tories, who adopted his label of Conservative as the official name of their party.
The Conservatives were in government for eighteen years between —, under the leadership of the first-ever female Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher , and former Chancellor of the Exchequer John Major — Their landslide defeat at the general election saw the Conservative Party lose over half their seats gained in , and saw the party re-align with public perceptions of them. The Conservatives lost all their seats in both Scotland and Wales, and was their worst defeat since After thirteen years in opposition, the Conservatives returned to power as part of a coalition agreement with the Liberal Democrats in , going on to form a majority government in The Conservative Party is the only party in the history of the United Kingdom to have been governed by a female Prime Minister.
This resulted in the merger between the Conservatives and Joseph Chamberlain's Liberal Unionist Party , composed of former Liberals who opposed Irish home rule. The unionist tendency is still in evidence today, manifesting sometimes as a scepticism or opposition to devolution, firm support for the continued existence of the United Kingdom in the face of movements advocating independence from the UK, and a historic link with the cultural unionism of Northern Ireland.
The Labour Party won the second-largest number of seats in the House of Commons at the general election, with seats overall.
The history of the Labour Party goes back to , when a Labour Representation Committee was established and changed its name to "The Labour Party" in After the First World War , this led to the demise of the Liberal Party as the main reformist force in British politics. The existence of the Labour Party on the left-wing of British politics led to a slow waning of energy from the Liberal Party, which has consequently assumed third place in national politics.
After performing poorly at the general elections of , and , the Liberal Party was superseded by the Labour Party as being the party of the left. Following two brief spells in minority governments in and —, the Labour Party won a landslide victory after World War II at the " khaki election "; winning a majority for the first time ever.
Throughout the rest of the twentieth century, Labour governments alternated with Conservative governments. The Labour Party suffered the "wilderness years" of — three consecutive general election defeats and — four consecutive general election defeats. During this second period, Margaret Thatcher , who became Leader of the Conservative Party in , made a fundamental change to Conservative policies, turning the Conservative Party into an economically liberal party.
At the general election , she defeated James Callaghan 's Labour government following the Winter of Discontent. For all of the s and most of the s, Conservative governments under Thatcher and her successor John Major pursued policies of privatisation , anti- trade-unionism , and, for a time, monetarism , now known collectively as Thatcherism. The Labour Party elected left-winger Michael Foot as their leader in , and he responded to dissatisfaction within the Labour Party by pursuing a number of radical policies developed by its grassroots members.
In , several centrist and right-leaning Labour MPs formed a breakaway group called the Social Democratic Party SDP , a move which split Labour and is widely believed to have made the Labour Party unelectable for a decade. The SDP formed an alliance with the Liberal Party which contested the and general elections as a pro-European, centrist alternative to Labour and the Conservatives.
What is political ideology?
After some initial success, the SDP did not prosper partly due to its unfavourable distribution of votes by the First-Past-The-Post electoral system , and was accused by some of splitting the Labour vote. Support for the new party has increased since then, and the Liberal Democrats often referred to as Lib Dems gained an increased number of seats in the House of Commons at both the and general elections.
The Labour Party was defeated in a landslide at the general election , and Michael Foot was replaced shortly thereafter by Neil Kinnock as party leader. Kinnock progressively expelled members of Militant , a far left group which practised entryism , and moderated many of the party's policies. Despite these changes, as well as electoral gains and also due to Kinnock's negative media image, Labour was defeated at the and general elections, and he was succeeded by Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer , John Smith. He continued to move the Labour Party towards the "centre" by loosening links with the unions and continuing many of Margaret Thatcher's neoliberal policies.
This coupled with the professionalising of the party machine's approach to the media, helped Labour win a historic landslide at the general election , after eighteen consecutive years of Conservative rule. Some observers say the Labour Party had by then morphed from a democratic socialist party to a social democratic party, a process which delivered three general election victories but alienated some of its core base; leading to the formation of the Socialist Labour Party UK.
A subset of Labour MPs stand as joint Labour and Co-operative candidates due to a long-standing electoral alliance between the Labour Party and the Co-op Party - the political arm of the British co-operative movement. At the general election , 42 candidates stood using the Labour and Co-operative Party ticket,  of which 24 were elected.
This was an increase of 50 MPs on the result achieved in The SNP has enjoyed parliamentary representation continuously since After the Scottish parliamentary election, the SNP won enough seats to form a majority government, the first time this had ever happened since devolution was established in Members of the Scottish National Party and Plaid Cymru work together as a single parliamentary group  following a formal pact signed in This group currently has 39 MPs.
The Liberal Democrats won the joint-fourth largest number of seats at the general election, returning 12 MPs.
The Liberal Democrats were founded in by an amalgamation of the Liberal Party with the Social Democratic Party, but can trace their origin back to the Whigs and the Rochdale Radicals who evolved into the Liberal Party. The term ' Liberal Party ' was first used officially in , though it had been in use colloquially for decades beforehand.
Ideologies of political parties
The Liberal Party formed a government in and then alternated with the Conservative Party as the party of government throughout the late-nineteenth century and early-twentieth century. The Liberal Democrats are a party with policies on constitutional and political reforms, including changing the voting system for general elections United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum , abolishing the House of Lords and replacing it with a member elected Senate, introducing fixed five-year Parliaments, and introducing a National Register of Lobbyists.
They also support what they see as greater fairness and social mobility. In the coalition government, the party promoted legislation introducing a pupil premium - funding for schools directed at the poorest students to give them an equal chance in life. Founded in by Ian Paisley , it has grown to become the larger of the two main unionist political parties in Northern Ireland.
Plaid Cymru has enjoyed parliamentary representation continuously since and had 4 MPs elected at the general election. Following the Welsh Assembly elections, they joined Labour as the junior partner in a coalition government, but have fallen down to the third-largest party in the Assembly after the Assembly elections, and have become an opposition party.
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It also has seats in the European Parliament , two seats on the London Assembly and around local councillors. They campaign mainly on issues such as reducing immigration and EU withdrawal. The Respect party, a left-wing group that came out of the anti-war movement had a single MP, George Galloway from , and again between There are usually a small number of Independent politicians in parliament with no party allegiance. In modern times, this has usually occurred when a sitting member leaves their party, and some such MPs have been re-elected as independents. Since , only two new members have been elected as independents without having ever stood for a major party:.
Other UK political parties exist, but generally threaten, rather than succeed in returning regular MPs to Parliament. In May the party lost its last elected representative a local councillor. The Libertarian Party was founded in and has contested several local elections and parliamentary constituencies. The English Democrats was founded in and advocates England having its own parliament. The party's candidate was elected mayor of Doncaster in , before resigning from the party in February Several local parties contest only within a specific area, a single county, borough or district.
The most notable local party is Health Concern , which controlled a single seat in the UK Parliament from to The Jury Team , launched in March and described as a "non-party party", is an umbrella organisation seeking to increase the number of independent members of both domestic and European members of Parliament in Great Britain. The OMRLP are distinguished by having a deliberately bizarre manifesto , which contains things that seem to be impossible or too absurd to implement — usually to highlight what they see as real-life absurdities. It is effectively regarded as a satirical political party.
The political system of the United Kingdom - Expat Guide to the United Kingdom | Expatica
After winning the largest number of seats and votes in the general election, the Conservatives first under David Cameron, secondly under Theresa May and now under Boris Johnson, remain ahead of the Labour Party, led by Jeremy Corbyn since September The SNP has maintained its position in Scotland, the party was just short of an overall majority at the Scottish parliamentary elections in May However a turbulent referendum on the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union, called for by David Cameron, led to his own resignation, the appointment of a new prime minister Theresa May, and divided opinion on Europe amongst the party.
In addition, the EU referendum campaign plunged the Labour Party into crisis and resulted in a motion of no confidence in the party leader Jeremy Corbyn being passed by the party's MPs in a vote,  which followed a significant number of resignations from the Shadow Cabinet.
This was won by Jeremy Corbyn with an increased majority. He went on to lead the Labour party at the election, where they gained 30 seats. Following the vote to leave the European Union, Nigel Farage offered his own resignation as leader, something he had campaigned for since A leadership contest also took place in the Green Party, which led to the joint election on 2 September of Jonathan Bartley and Caroline Lucas as co-leaders, who took over the role in a job-share arrangement. Strategic cross-party alliances have been initiated, including a " progressive alliance " and a "Patriotic Alliance",   as proposed by UKIP donor Aaron Banks.
Others argue that it facilitates the Brexit negotiations by forcing the EU to modify the current proposed deal. The move is unprecented in UK politics and has caused debate in the media, an attempt to stop it in the Scotish Court of Session , an attempt by ex-prime minister John Major and others to stop it in the English High Court and in the High Court in Northern Ireland. On the return of parliament in September the government lost its majority when Conservative MP Phillip Lee crossed the floor of the house to join the Liberal Democrats.
The government of Boris Johnson then lost a vote, to , giving control of the agenda of the house to the MPs, removing the control the government had over the introduction of new laws. This included long-standing members of the party. All political parties have membership schemes that allow members of the public to actively influence the policy and direction of the party to varying degrees, though particularly at a local level.
The table below details the membership numbers of political parties that have more than 5, members. The UK is divided into a variety of different types of Local Authorities , with different functions and responsibilities. England has a mix of two-tier and single-tier councils in different parts of the country. In Greater London , a unique two-tier system exists, with power shared between the London borough councils, and the Greater London Authority which is headed by an elected mayor.
The UK's membership in the Union has been a major topic of debate over the years and has been objected to over questions of sovereignty,  and in recent years there have been divisions in both major parties over whether the UK should form greater ties within the EU, or reduce the EU's supranational powers. Opponents of greater European integration are known as " Eurosceptics ", while supporters are known as "Europhiles".
Division over Europe is prevalent in both major parties, although the Conservative Party is seen as most divided over the issue, both whilst in Government up to and after , and between those dates as the opposition. However, the Labour Party is also divided, with conflicting views over UK adoption of the euro whilst in Government — British nationalists have long campaigned against European integration.
In March , Parliament decided to not hold a referendum on the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon , signed in December After the referendum, it was debated as to how and when the UK should leave the EU. On 11 July , the Cabinet Office Minister, John Penrose failed to deliver a final answer on whether it would be at the disposal of the Prime Minister and one of the Secretaries of State , through the Royal prerogative , or of Parliament , through primary legislation.
In October the Conservative Prime Minister , Theresa May , announced that Article 50 would be invoked by "the first quarter of ". Consequently, the European Union Notification of Withdrawal Act empowering the prime minister to invoke Article 50 was passed and enacted by royal assent in March This led to a change of prime minister who promised to leave the EU on this date either with a revised deal or with no-deal.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the academic journal of the same name, see British Politics journal. Royal Coat of Arms. United Kingdom.
Related British Political Ideologies
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